An open space for global conversation
David Braden of Applewood Permaculture Institute elsewhere wrote:
The industrial system developed a narrow focus definition of efficiency we call economies of scale . . . which are really only efficient when you measure from the purchase of inputs to the sale of outputs and leave out everything that happens before and after. Permaculture teaches a broader focus definition of efficiency that I call economies of integration, in which we design for internal cycles of production and consumption each supporting other functions.